Research on Individuals


Individuals – Interventions which target distinct individuals or certain types of individuals such as violent youths, repeat offenders, sex offenders, or drunk drivers.

 Rigor: M=Moderately Rigorous; R= Rigorous; VR=Very Rigorous
 Y-axis: F=Focused and Tailored; G=General
 Z-axis: R=Reactive; P=Proactive; H=Highly Proactive
 Dots: Black=Effective; Gray=Mixed Results; White=No Evidence of Effect; 
       Red=Backfire effect
Intervention and Findings
Result Rigor Y-Axis Z-Axis
Abrahamse et al. (1991) Post-arrest case enhancement of repeat offenders increased odds of arrestees being incarcerated. full-circle VR F R
Ariel et al. (2019) Proactive engagement of prolific offenders led to lower offending in treated groups full-circle R F HP
Bennett et al. (2018) Truancy intervention led to a non-significant decrease in offending among treated students, despite control students experiencing a significant increase in offending over the same time period full-circle VR F HP
Berk et al. (1992) Arrest of spousal abusers reduced recidivism full-circle VR F R
Bonkiewicz et al. (2014) Mental health post-crisis assistance program led to reductions in mental health calls for service, arrests, and emergency protective custody orders full-circle R F R
Casey et al. (2007) Domestic violence victims receiving home visits have significantly less calls for service than comparison group full-circle M F R
Cho & Wilke (2010) Arrest of intimate partner violence perpetrators associated with reduced victimization compared to non-arrest. full-circle M G R
Collins et al. (2017) Diversion program for low-level offenders associated with significantly lower odds of a subsequent arrest and felony charge full-circle R F R
Dunford (1990) Arrest warrant for domestic violence suspect reduced absent offender recidivism 50% full-circle VR F R
Exum et al. (2014) Suspects processed through the DV unit had significantly lower rates of re-offending full-circle R F R
Fox & Farrington (2015) Behavioral profiles for burglary offenses and offenders increased arrest rates full-circle M F R
Jolin et al. (1998) Domestic violence unit designed to increase arrests and prosecutions of offenders and provide follow-up victim empowerment services associated with decline in victim-reported subsequent violence full-circle VR F R
Knoxville P.D. (2002) Police-probation collaborative program participants more likely to successfully complete probation full-circle M F R
Martin & Sherman (1986) Targeted offenders in selective apprehension program more likely to be arrested, convicted, and incarcerated full-circle R F R
Messing et al. (2015)  A police-social service resulted in fewer victimization of physical violence. full-circle R  F R
Sherman & Berk (1984) Arrest condition for domestic violence associated with significantly less offender recidivism compared to separation and mediation. full-circle R F R
Sherman et al. (2000) (Violent Offenders) Restorative justice conferences can be effective in reducing repeat offending for violent offenders full-circle VR G R
Spergel et al. (2002) Comparison of 258 program juveniles with 96 comparison youth showed the program youth had arrest levels 18 percent lower than the comparison youth over a 4-year period. full-circle M F P
Worrall & Gaines (2006) Police/probation officer partnership for juvenile offenders associated with citywide reductions in assault, burglary, and theft arrests full-circle M F R
Esbensen (2002) Students in Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program were less likely to join gangs in cross-sectional study. The longitudinal study, however, failed to find a programmatic effect. grey-circle M G HP
Esbensen et al. (2012) Police-led programs for gang prevention aimed at reduction in gang membership, reduction in violent offending, and improved attitudes toward the police grey-circle VR G HP
Harmon (1993) Those that receive D.A.R.E. significantly less likely to start using alcohol in year after program; no impact on cigarette or marijuana use grey-circle M G HP
McCold & Wachtel (1998) Violent offenders in restorative justice program have lower recidivism rates, but this is a selection effect, not a treatment effect; no difference among property offenders grey-circle VR G R
Pate & Hamilton (1992) Arrest for domestic violence had a deterrent effect for employed offenders, but increased recidivism among unemployed offenders grey-circle R F R
Shapland et al. (2008) (Northumbria – Adult Offenders) Restorative justice conference had no effect on reconvictions for assault cases, but did lead to fewer reconvictions of property cases grey-circle VR G R
Sherman et al. (1991) Arrest for domestic violence had no effect on recidivism at six months, and short arrest increased recidivism after 12 months grey-circle VR F R
Sherman et al. (1992) Arrest for domestic violence had deterrent effect for married, employed, white high school graduates, but was criminogenic for unemployed, unmarried, black high school drop outs grey-circle R F R
Wan et al. (2018) The Safer Pathway program decreased domestic violence-related outcomes in some treatment locations but produced no effect or backfire effects in other locations grey-circle R F R
Becker et al. (1992) Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) had no significant impact on drug use empty M G HP
Brame et al. (2015) Court-imposed no-contact orders (NCOs) had no impact on victim safety or offender recidivism empty VR F P
Brennan et al. (2018) Early diversion program for low-risk female offenders did not significantly impact the probability of rearrest or the time to rearrest empty M F HP
Clayton et al. (1996) No significant impact of D.A.R.E. on cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use one year after and over five year follow up empty R G HP
Davis & Taylor (1997) Home visits after domestic violence failed to reduce repeat violence; Public education about domestic violence failed to reduce violence empty VR F R
Davis et al. (2007) No reduction in subsequent abuse for households that receive second responder within 24 hours or after 7 days empty VR F R
Dunford (1992) Arrest for domestic violence increased offense frequency at 12 months empty VR F R
Ennett et al. (1994) D.A.R.E. has no significant impact on smoking, alcohol use, or heavy drinking immediately after, 1 year after, and 2 years; after program empty R G HP
Giblin (2002) Juveniles participating in CAN (police/probation paternship) were more likely to have new technical violations than were juveniles on regular probation empty VR F R
Hirschel et al. (1990) Arrest for domestic violence increases official recidivism empty VR F R
Perry et al. (2003) D.A.R.E. has no significant impact on any of the outcome measures (self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use; violence, victimization) empty VR G HP
Ridgeway et al. (2011) Letter to gun buyers informing them about gun laws has no impact on likelihood gun will become crime gun empty VR F HP
Ringwalt et al. (1991) D.A.R.E has no significant impact on smoking, alcohol use, or use of inhalants empty R G HP
Rose & Hamilton (1970) Juvenile diversion and supervision program has no impact on juvenile recidivism empty VR F R
Rosenbaum & Hanson (1998) D.A.R.E has no significant overall impact on using drugs, cigarettes, or alcohol empty R G HP
Saunders et al. (2016) Predictive policing intervention targeting individuals at high risk for gun violence did not significantly impact the likelihood of becoming a shooting or homicide victim empty R F HP
Shanahan et al. (2017) Cautioning strategy for cannabis offenses had no significant impact on self-reported cannabis use empty R F R
Shapland et al. (2008) (London – Robbery) Restorative justice conference had no effect on robbery offenders empty VR G R
Shapland et al. (2008) (London – Burglary) Restorative justice conference had no effect on burglary offenders empty VR G R
Shapland et al. (2008) (Northumbria – Juveniles) Restorative justice conference had no effect on juvenile offenders empty VR G R
Sherman et al. (2000) (Juvenile Shoplifting Offenders) Restorative justice conference had no effect for juvenile shoplifting offenders empty VR G R
Sherman et al. (2000) (Juvenile Property Offenders) Restorative justice conferences did not reduce offending of juvenile property offenders empty VR G R
Stover et al. (2010) Home visit program for domestic violence victims has no significant impact on reported violence empty M F R
Williams-Taylor (2009) Intensive supervision program for sex offenders has no significant impact on rates of general recidivism, sexual, violent, violent sexual or non-compliance recidivism empty M F R
Davis & Medina-Ariza (2001) More elderly abuse incidents and calls to police reported in houses that receive home visit and education; those that receive home visits only call the police more, but don’t report more abuse. backfire VR F P
Hovell et al. (2006) Those that receive Family Violence Response Team treatment have a 1.7 times greater rate of re-abuse backfire M F R
Klein (1986) More formal arrest processing increased recidivism backfire VR F R
Sherman et al. (2000) (Drunk Driving)  Restorative justice conference led to possible backfire effects (with caveats) in rehabilitating drunk drivers backfire  VR G R
Sloboda et al. (2009) Negative program effect for adolescent substance abuse prevention program on use of alcohol and cigarettes and no effect for marijuana use. backfire VR G HP
Sorg (2015) GunStat program did not reduce violent crime during treatment period and was associated with significantly higher levels of gun crime during post-treatment period backfire R F P
Uchida et al. (2019) Focused deterrence program led to quicker recidivism for treatment participants backfire VR F HP