Research on Individuals


Individuals – Interventions which target distinct individuals or certain types of individuals such as violent youths, repeat offenders, sex offenders, or drunk drivers. Note that any study targeting individuals is included here, regardless of the level at which the results were analyzed (e.g., groups, neighborhoods).

 Rigor: M=Moderately Rigorous; R= Rigorous; VR=Very Rigorous
 Y-axis: F=Focused and Tailored; G=General
 Z-axis: R=Reactive; P=Proactive; H=Highly Proactive
 Dots: Black=Effective; Gray=Mixed Results; White=No Evidence of Effect; 
       Red=Backfire effect
Intervention and Findings
Result Rigor Y-Axis Z-Axis
Abrahamse et al. (1991) Post-arrest case enhancement of repeat offenders increased odds of arrestees being incarcerated. full-circle VR F R
Ariel et al. (2019) Proactive engagement of prolific offenders led to lower offending in treated groups full-circle R F HP
Bennett et al. (2018) Truancy intervention led to a non-significant decrease in offending among treated students, despite control students experiencing a significant increase in offending over the same time period full-circle VR F HP
Berk et al. (1992) Arrest of spousal abusers reduced recidivism full-circle VR F R
Bonkiewicz et al. (2014) Mental health post-crisis assistance program led to reductions in mental health calls for service, arrests, and emergency protective custody orders full-circle R F R
Casey et al. (2007) Domestic violence victims receiving home visits have significantly less calls for service than comparison group full-circle M F R
Cho & Wilke (2010) Arrest of intimate partner violence perpetrators associated with reduced victimization compared to non-arrest. full-circle M G R
Collins et al. (2017) Diversion program for low-level offenders associated with significantly lower odds of a subsequent arrest and felony charge full-circle R F R
Dunford (1990) Arrest warrant for domestic violence suspect reduced absent offender recidivism 50% full-circle VR F R
Exum et al. (2014) Suspects processed through the DV unit had significantly lower rates of re-offending full-circle R F R
Fox & Farrington (2015) Behavioral profiles for burglary offenses and offenders increased arrest rates full-circle M F R
Jolin et al. (1998) Domestic violence unit designed to increase arrests and prosecutions of offenders and provide follow-up victim empowerment services associated with decline in victim-reported subsequent violence full-circle VR F R
Knoxville P.D. (2002) Police-probation collaborative program participants more likely to successfully complete probation full-circle M F R
Martin & Sherman (1986) Targeted offenders in selective apprehension program more likely to be arrested, convicted, and incarcerated full-circle R F R
Messing et al. (2015)  A police-social service resulted in fewer victimization of physical violence. full-circle R  F R
Sherman & Berk (1984) Arrest condition for domestic violence associated with significantly less offender recidivism compared to separation and mediation. full-circle R F R
Sherman et al. (2000) (Violent Offenders) Restorative justice conferences can be effective in reducing repeat offending for violent offenders full-circle VR G R
Spergel et al. (2002) Comparison of 258 program juveniles with 96 comparison youth showed the program youth had arrest levels 18 percent lower than the comparison youth over a 4-year period. full-circle M F P
Worrall & Gaines (2006) Police/probation officer partnership for juvenile offenders associated with citywide reductions in assault, burglary, and theft arrests full-circle M F R
Esbensen (2002) Students in Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.) program were less likely to join gangs in cross-sectional study. The longitudinal study, however, failed to find a programmatic effect. grey-circle M G HP
Esbensen et al. (2012) Police-led programs for gang prevention aimed at reduction in gang membership, reduction in violent offending, and improved attitudes toward the police grey-circle VR G HP
Harmon (1993) Those that receive D.A.R.E. significantly less likely to start using alcohol in year after program; no impact on cigarette or marijuana use grey-circle M G HP
McCold & Wachtel (1998) Violent offenders in restorative justice program have lower recidivism rates, but this is a selection effect, not a treatment effect; no difference among property offenders grey-circle VR G R
Pate & Hamilton (1992) Arrest for domestic violence had a deterrent effect for employed offenders, but increased recidivism among unemployed offenders grey-circle R F R
Shapland et al. (2008) (Northumbria – Adult Offenders) Restorative justice conference had no effect on reconvictions for assault cases, but did lead to fewer reconvictions of property cases grey-circle VR G R
Sherman et al. (1991) Arrest for domestic violence had no effect on recidivism at six months, and short arrest increased recidivism after 12 months grey-circle VR F R
Sherman et al. (1992) Arrest for domestic violence had deterrent effect for married, employed, white high school graduates, but was criminogenic for unemployed, unmarried, black high school drop outs grey-circle R F R
Wan et al. (2018) The Safer Pathway program decreased domestic violence-related outcomes in some treatment locations but produced no effect or backfire effects in other locations grey-circle R F R
Becker et al. (1992) Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) had no significant impact on drug use empty M G HP
Brame et al. (2015) Court-imposed no-contact orders (NCOs) had no impact on victim safety or offender recidivism empty VR F P
Brennan et al. (2018) Early diversion program for low-risk female offenders did not significantly impact the probability of rearrest or the time to rearrest empty M F HP
Clayton et al. (1996) No significant impact of D.A.R.E. on cigarette, alcohol, or marijuana use one year after and over five year follow up empty R G HP
Davis & Taylor (1997) Home visits after domestic violence failed to reduce repeat violence; Public education about domestic violence failed to reduce violence empty VR F R
Davis et al. (2007) No reduction in subsequent abuse for households that receive second responder within 24 hours or after 7 days empty VR F R
Dunford (1992) Arrest for domestic violence increased offense frequency at 12 months empty VR F R
Ennett et al. (1994) D.A.R.E. has no significant impact on smoking, alcohol use, or heavy drinking immediately after, 1 year after, and 2 years; after program empty R G HP
Giblin (2002) Juveniles participating in CAN (police/probation paternship) were more likely to have new technical violations than were juveniles on regular probation empty VR F R
Hirschel et al. (1990) Arrest for domestic violence increases official recidivism empty VR F R
Perry et al. (2003) D.A.R.E. has no significant impact on any of the outcome measures (self-reported tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use; violence, victimization) empty VR G HP
Ridgeway et al. (2011) Letter to gun buyers informing them about gun laws has no impact on likelihood gun will become crime gun empty VR F HP
Ringwalt et al. (1991) D.A.R.E has no significant impact on smoking, alcohol use, or use of inhalants empty R G HP
Rose & Hamilton (1970) Juvenile diversion and supervision program has no impact on juvenile recidivism empty VR F R
Rosenbaum & Hanson (1998) D.A.R.E has no significant overall impact on using drugs, cigarettes, or alcohol empty R G HP
Saunders et al. (2016) Predictive policing intervention targeting individuals at high risk for gun violence did not significantly impact the likelihood of becoming a shooting or homicide victim empty R F HP
Shanahan et al. (2017) Cautioning strategy for cannabis offenses had no significant impact on self-reported cannabis use empty R F R
Shapland et al. (2008) (London – Robbery) Restorative justice conference had no effect on robbery offenders empty VR G R
Shapland et al. (2008) (London – Burglary) Restorative justice conference had no effect on burglary offenders empty VR G R
Shapland et al. (2008) (Northumbria – Juveniles) Restorative justice conference had no effect on juvenile offenders empty VR G R
Sherman et al. (2000) (Juvenile Shoplifting Offenders) Restorative justice conference had no effect for juvenile shoplifting offenders empty VR G R
Sherman et al. (2000) (Juvenile Property Offenders) Restorative justice conferences did not reduce offending of juvenile property offenders empty VR G R
Stover et al. (2010) Home visit program for domestic violence victims has no significant impact on reported violence empty M F R
Williams-Taylor (2009) Intensive supervision program for sex offenders has no significant impact on rates of general recidivism, sexual, violent, violent sexual or non-compliance recidivism empty M F R
Davis & Medina-Ariza (2001) More elderly abuse incidents and calls to police reported in houses that receive home visit and education; those that receive home visits only call the police more, but don’t report more abuse. backfire VR F P
Hovell et al. (2006) Those that receive Family Violence Response Team treatment have a 1.7 times greater rate of re-abuse backfire M F R
Klein (1986) More formal arrest processing increased recidivism backfire VR F R
Sherman et al. (2000) (Drunk Driving)  Restorative justice conference led to possible backfire effects (with caveats) in rehabilitating drunk drivers backfire  VR G R
Sloboda et al. (2009) Negative program effect for adolescent substance abuse prevention program on use of alcohol and cigarettes and no effect for marijuana use. backfire VR G HP
Sorg (2015) GunStat program did not reduce violent crime during treatment period and was associated with significantly higher levels of gun crime during post-treatment period backfire R F P
Uchida et al. (2019) Focused deterrence program led to quicker recidivism for treatment participants backfire VR F HP