Research on Micro-Places


Micro-Places –Interventions which target very small geographic locations such as a block, street segment, alley, intersection, specific address or cluster of addresses.

 Rigor: M=Moderately Rigorous; R= Rigorous; VR=Very Rigorous
 Y-axis: F=Focused and Tailored; G=General
 Z-axis: R=Reactive; P=Proactive; H=Highly Proactive
 Dots: Black=Effective; Gray=Mixed Results; White=No Evidence of Effect; 
       Red=Backfire effect
Author Intervention and Findings
Result Rigor Y-Axis Z-Axis
Baker & Wolfer (2003) Problem-oriented policing project in a park reduces fear and perceptions of drug use and vandalism full-circle M F HP
Bichler et al.  (2013) Problem-oriented policing, focusing on outreach to motel owners and operators, code enforcement, and permit ordinance to increase pressure on uncooperative motel operators full-circle M F P
Braga et al. (1999) Problem-oriented policing in violent crime hot spots leads to reductions in violent and property crime, disorder and drug selling full-circle VR F HP
Braga & Bond (2008) Focus on hot spots of crime leads to reductions in crime and disorder calls for service full-circle VR F P
Braga et al. (2012) Safe Street Team problem-oriented policing project associated with a reduction in violent index crimes at treatment hot spots relative to comparison places full-circle R F HP
Bryant et al. (2015) Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety (DDACTS) produced statistically significant decreases in robberies, commercial burglaries, and vehicle crashes full-circle M G P
Chaiken et al. (1975) Increased police on the New York Subways at night led to reduced crime full-circle M G P
Corsaro et al. (2012) Pulling levers intervention: Identification of drug and violence hot spots followed by notification and resource delivery to individuals convicted of nonviolent nonfelony crimes full-circle R F P
Di Tella & Schargrodsky (2004) Blocks that received extra police protection experienced significantly fewer car thefts than the rest of the neighborhoods. full-circle R G R
Eck & Wartell (1998) Property managers who have a meeting with police and threat of nuisance abatement report less crime, receiving letter somewhat effective in reducing crime full-circle VR F HP
Groff et al. (2015) -Offender focused An approach focusing on known offenders led to a reduction in violent crime and violent felonies full-circle VR F P
Hope (1994) Case studies of problem-oriented policing and drug-market locations. Forced closure or sale of property reduced drug dealing full-circle M F HP
Jim et al. (2006) Community-oriented policing in a retail shopping center led to reduced perception of gang activity and fear of crime full-circle M G P
Kennedy et al. (2015) – Colorado Springs Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas full-circle R F P
Kennedy et al. (2015) – Glendale  Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas full-circle R F P
Kennedy et al. (2015) – Kansas City  Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas full-circle R F P
Kennedy et al. (2015) – Newark  Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas full-circle R F P
Kochel et al. (2015) – Directed patrol Directed patrol led to reduction in calls for service full-circle R G P
Kochel et al (2015) – Problem solving Problem-oriented policing led to reduction in calls for service full-circle R F HP
Lawton et al. (2005) Police officers on drug corners in Philadelphia led associated with significant localized intervention impacts for both violent and drug crimes. full-circle R G P
Mazerolle, Price et al. (2000) The use of civil remedies and third party policing associated with reduced drug crime, especially in residential locations full-circle VR F HP
Mohler et al. (2015) Predictive policing models led to reduction in crime full-circle R G P
Piza et al. (2015) CCTV increased identification of criminal activity and a reduction of crime full-circle VR G P
Ratcliffe et al. (2011) Foot patrol associated with a significant decrease in crime in hot spots that reach a threshold level of pre-intervention violence full-circle VR G P
Santos & Santos (2015) Micro-time hot spots approach reduced theft from vehicles full-circle R F R
Sherman & Weisburd (1995) Substantial increases in police patrol associated with reduction in total crime calls and more significant reduction in disorder at high crime hot spots full-circle VR G P
Taylor et al. (2011)– POP Problem-oriented policing in hot spots associated with a 33% drop in “street violence” during the 90 days after the intervention full-circle VR F HP
Telep et al. (2014) Spending approximately 15 minutes at treatment hot spots to reduce calls for service and crime incidents full-circle VR G P
Weisburd & Green (1995) Crackdowns on drug hot spots reduced disorder; no effects on violence or property crime full-circle VR F HP
Weisburd et al. (2015) – Hot spots Treatment patrol areas drawn from automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems experienced significant increases in unallocated patrol time and a decrease in crime full-circle R G P
White & Katz (2013) Problem-oriented policing at convenience store locations led to a 40% decline in calls for service at target stores. full-circle M F P
Armitage & Monchuk (2011) Secured by Design (SBD) program to encourage builders to design out crime shows effectiveness in street-level comparisons but not when comparing SBD developments to non-SBD developments grey-circle M F HP
Hegarty et al. (2014) Hot spots policing design using both visibility and visibility/activity, both of which reduced crimes and calls for service. grey-circle VR G/F P
Koper et al. (2013) Short-term patrols with LPR devices reduced different crimes depending on how the LPRs were used grey-circle VR F P
Koper et al. (2015) Crime declined in hot spots that received higher levels of dosage, but greater use of mobile computing technology at hot spots did not enhance outcomes grey-circle VR G P
La Vigne et al. (2011)-Baltimore Police monitored CCTV cameras reduce crime in one Baltimore site, but not the other grey-circle R G P
La Vigne et al. (2011)-Chicago Police monitored CCTV cameras reduce crime in one Chicago site, but not the other grey-circle R G P
Morton et al. (2019) Police partnerships with hoteliers to reduce drug and nuisance problems increased police engagement with hoteliers, hotelier reporting of crimes, and increased executed warrants. Effects decayed over time. grey-circle VR F HP
Novak et al. (2016) Foot patrol effect initially reduced violent crime, but this effect soon faded grey-circle M G P
Piza & O’Hara (2014) Saturation foot patrol produced reductions in violent crime, with evidence of both temporal and spatial displacement grey-circle M G P
Rosenfeld et al. (2014) -Directed patrol plus enforcement Directed patrol plus enforcement activities reduced total firearm violence, but produced no change in firearm robberies grey-circle VR F P
Sherman & Rogan (1995) Crack house raids reduced crime for about 12 days; crime reductions decayed quickly grey-circle VR F P
Buerger (1994) Problem-oriented policing in high crime addresses leads difference in calls for service in commercial treatment vs. control addresses, but small decline in residential calls in treatment area empty VR F HP
Groff et al. (2015) -POP Problem-oriented policing did not lead to a reduction in violent crime, however likely due to weak implementation empty VR F HP
Groff et al. (2015) – Foot patrol Foot patrol did not lead to reduction in violent crime empty VR G P
Lum et al. (2010) Use of license plate readers mounted on patrol cars in autotheft hot spot areas not associated with declines in auto crime or crime generally in two jurisdictions empty VR G P
Rosenfeld et al. (2014) -Directed patrol only The directed patrol intervention had no significant impact on any of the outcome measures. empty VR G P
Taylor et al. (2011)– Directed patrol Saturation/directed patrol in hot spots not associated with a significant decline in crime in the post-intervention period empty VR G P
Weisburd et al. (2012) Broken windows policing had no evidence of an effect in calls for service empty VR G P
Weiss & Freels (1996) Aggressive traffic law enforcement had no impact on robbery or auto theft rates. empty M G P