Research on Micro-Places


Micro-Places –Interventions which target very small geographic locations such as a block, street segment, alley, intersection, specific address or cluster of addresses. Note that any study targeting individuals is included here, regardless of the level at which the results were analyzed (e.g., neighborhoods, jurisdictions).

 Rigor: M=Moderately Rigorous; R= Rigorous; VR=Very Rigorous
 Y-axis: F=Focused and Tailored; G=General
 Z-axis: R=Reactive; P=Proactive; H=Highly Proactive
 Dots: Black=Effective; Gray=Mixed Results; White=No Evidence of Effect; 
       Red=Backfire effect
Author Intervention and Findings
Result Rigor Y-Axis Z-Axis
Ariel et al. (2016) Hot spot policing by community support officers (non-sworn police employees) led to significant reductions in crime and calls for service full-circle VR G P
Baker & Wolfer (2003) Problem-oriented policing project in a park reduces fear and perceptions of drug use and vandalism full-circle M F HP
Bichler et al.  (2013) Problem-oriented policing, focusing on outreach to motel owners and operators, code enforcement, and permit ordinance to increase pressure on uncooperative motel operators full-circle M F P
Bond et al. (2014) Problem-oriented policing directed at property crime hot spots led to significant decreases in various forms of larceny, burglary, and theft full-circle R F HP
Braga et al. (1999) Problem-oriented policing in violent crime hot spots leads to reductions in violent and property crime, disorder and drug selling full-circle VR F HP
Braga & Bond (2008) Focus on hot spots of crime leads to reductions in crime and disorder calls for service full-circle VR F P
Braga et al. (2012) Safe Street Team problem-oriented policing project associated with a reduction in violent index crimes at treatment hot spots relative to comparison places full-circle R F HP
Bryant et al. (2015) Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety (DDACTS) produced statistically significant decreases in robberies, commercial burglaries, and vehicle crashes full-circle M G P
Chaiken et al. (1974) Increased police on the New York Subways at night led to reduced crime full-circle M G P
Corsaro et al. (2012) Pulling levers intervention: Identification of drug and violence hot spots followed by notification and resource delivery to individuals convicted of nonviolent nonfelony crimes full-circle R F P
Di Tella & Schargrodsky (2004) Blocks that received extra police protection experienced significantly fewer car thefts than the rest of the neighborhoods. full-circle R G R
Eck & Wartell (1998) Property managers who have a meeting with police and threat of nuisance abatement report less crime, receiving letter somewhat effective in reducing crime full-circle VR F HP
Groff et al. (2015) -Offender focused An approach focusing on known offenders led to a reduction in violent crime and violent felonies full-circle VR F P
Hope (1994) Case studies of problem-oriented policing and drug-market locations. Forced closure or sale of property reduced drug dealing full-circle M F HP
Jim et al. (2006) Community-oriented policing in a retail shopping center led to reduced perception of gang activity and fear of crime full-circle M G P
Kennedy et al. (2015) – Colorado Springs Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas full-circle R F P
Kennedy et al. (2015) – Glendale  Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas full-circle R F P
Kennedy et al. (2015) – Kansas City  Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas full-circle R F P
Kennedy et al. (2015) – Newark  Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas full-circle R F P
Kochel et al. (2015) – Directed patrol Directed patrol led to reduction in calls for service full-circle R G P
Kochel et al (2015) – Problem solving Problem-oriented policing led to reduction in calls for service full-circle R F HP
Lawton et al. (2005) Police officers on drug corners in Philadelphia led associated with significant localized intervention impacts for both violent and drug crimes. full-circle R G P
Mazeika (2014) Crackdown intervention focusing on saturation patrol and enforcement activity led to significant decreases in robberies during the intervention period full-circle R G P
Mazerolle et al. (2000) The use of civil remedies and third party policing associated with reduced drug crime, especially in residential locations full-circle VR F HP
Mohler et al. (2015) Predictive policing models led to reduction in crime full-circle VR G P
Piza et al. (2015) CCTV increased identification of criminal activity and a reduction of crime full-circle VR G P
Ratcliffe et al. (2011) Foot patrol associated with a significant decrease in crime in hot spots that reach a threshold level of pre-intervention violence full-circle VR G P
Santos & Santos (2015) Micro-time hot spots approach reduced theft from vehicles full-circle R F R
Sherman & Weisburd (1995) Substantial increases in police patrol associated with reduction in total crime calls and more significant reduction in disorder at high crime hot spots full-circle VR G P
Taylor et al. (2011)– POP Problem-oriented policing in hot spots associated with a 33% drop in “street violence” during the 90 days after the intervention full-circle VR F HP
Telep et al. (2014) Spending approximately 15 minutes at treatment hot spots to reduce calls for service and crime incidents full-circle VR G P
Weisburd & Green (1995) Crackdowns on drug hot spots reduced disorder; no effects on violence or property crime full-circle VR F HP
Weisburd et al. (2015) – Hot spots Treatment patrol areas drawn from automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems experienced significant increases in unallocated patrol time and a decrease in crime full-circle R G P
White & Katz (2013) Problem-oriented policing at convenience store locations led to a 40% decline in calls for service at target stores. full-circle M F P
Williams & Coupe (2017) 15-minute police patrols were associated with significant reductions in crime and anti-social behavior calls for service, relative to 5-minute patrols full-circle VR G P
Ariel & Partridge (2017) Hot spots policing at high-crime bus stops was associated with a significant reduction in driver incident reports but also a significant increase in victim-generated crime grey-circle VR G P
Armitage & Monchuk (2011) Secured by Design (SBD) program to encourage builders to design out crime shows effectiveness in street-level comparisons but not when comparing SBD developments to non-SBD developments grey-circle M F HP
Blattman et al. (2021) Combination of hot spots policing and municipal services led to significant crime reductions that were offset by larger displacement effects grey-circle VR F P
Carson & Wellman (2018) POP intervention to combat crime in a multifamily, low-income apartment complex produced inconsistent effects on reported crime and calls for service across crime types grey-circle M F HP
Gill et al. (2018) POP intervention led to significant decreases in crime and calls for service in one targeted hot spot but did not significantly affect these outcomes in another grey-circle R F HP
Groff & Taniguchi (2019) Citizen burglary notifications in high-risk areas did not reduce burglary in either of the two counties where it was tested but did produce a significant reduction when data from both counties was combined grey-circle VR F P
Hegarty et al. (2014) Hot spots policing design using both visibility and visibility/activity, both of which reduced crimes and calls for service. grey-circle VR G/F P
Koper et al. (2013) Short-term patrols with LPR devices reduced different crimes depending on how the LPRs were used grey-circle VR F P
Koper et al. (2015) Crime declined in hot spots that received higher levels of dosage, but greater use of mobile computing technology at hot spots did not enhance outcomes grey-circle VR G P
Lai et al. (2019) Police monitored CCTV cameras reduced robbery incidents in treatment sites but did not significantly impact other types of property crime grey-circle R G P
La Vigne et al. (2011)-Baltimore Police monitored CCTV cameras reduce crime in one Baltimore site, but not the other grey-circle R G P
La Vigne et al. (2011)-Chicago Police monitored CCTV cameras reduce crime in one Chicago site, but not the other grey-circle R G P
MacDonald et al. (2016) Investigatory stops directed at crime hot spots significantly reduced reported crime. However, this effect was limited to probable cause stops, and stops based on general suspicion were not associated with a crime reduction effect grey-circle R G P
Morton et al. (2019) Police partnerships with hoteliers to reduce drug and nuisance problems increased police engagement with hoteliers, hotelier reporting of crimes, and increased executed warrants. Effects decayed over time. grey-circle VR F HP
Novak et al. (2016) Foot patrol effect initially reduced violent crime, but this effect soon faded grey-circle M G P
Piza (2018) Installation of CCTV cameras led to significant reductions in auto thefts but did not impact theft from auto or violent crime incidents grey-circle R G P
Piza & O’Hara (2014) Saturation foot patrol produced reductions in violent crime, with evidence of both temporal and spatial displacement grey-circle M G P
Rosenfeld et al. (2014) -Directed patrol plus enforcement Directed patrol plus enforcement activities reduced total firearm violence, but produced no change in firearm robberies grey-circle VR F P
Sherman & Rogan (1995) Crack house raids reduced crime for about 12 days; crime reductions decayed quickly grey-circle VR F P
Stephenson (2017) Saturation patrol within hot spots did not reduce crime or calls for service overall, but effects varied across targeted locations grey-circle R G P
Wheeler & Phillips (2018) Combination of automatic license plate readers and temporary roadblocks was associated with crime declines in some analyses and crime increases in others grey-circle R F P
Bennett et al. (2017) Mobile police van employing elements of hot spots policing and procedural justice did not significantly impact reported crime or community perceptions of police empty VR G P
Buerger (1994) Problem-oriented policing in high crime addresses leads difference in calls for service in commercial treatment vs. control addresses, but small decline in residential calls in treatment area empty VR F HP
Gerell (2016) Actively monitored CCTV intervention did not significantly impact violent crime empty M G P
Groff et al. (2015) -POP Problem-oriented policing did not lead to a reduction in violent crime, however likely due to weak implementation empty VR F HP
Groff et al. (2015) – Foot patrol Foot patrol did not lead to reduction in violent crime empty VR G P
Lum et al. (2010) Use of license plate readers mounted on patrol cars in autotheft hot spot areas not associated with declines in auto crime or crime generally in two jurisdictions empty VR G P
Phillips et al. (2016) Targeted police raids within drug and violent crime hot spots did not significantly impact Part I crime empty M F P
Ratcliffe et al. (2021) The use of predictive policing software to target hot spots with police activity did not lead to significant reductions in violent or property crime empty R F P
Rosenfeld et al. (2014) -Directed patrol only The directed patrol intervention had no significant impact on any of the outcome measures. empty VR G P
Santos & Santos (2016) Offender-focused intervention within residential and property crime hot spots did not significantly impact overall crime or hot spot arrests empty VR F P
Schaefer et al. (2019) Directed patrol at both city and suburban hot spots did not impact crime incidents or calls for service empty VR G P
Taylor et al. (2011)– Directed patrol Saturation/directed patrol in hot spots not associated with a significant decline in crime in the post-intervention period empty VR G P
Weisburd et al. (2012) Broken windows policing had no evidence of an effect in calls for service empty VR G P
Weiss & Freels (1996) Aggressive traffic law enforcement had no impact on robbery or auto theft rates. empty M G P
Devlin & Gottfredson (2018) Schools with resources officers associated with significantly higher rates of both recorded and reported crime backfire M G P
Sorg (2015) GunStat program did not reduce violent crime during treatment period and was associated with significantly higher levels of gun crime during post-treatment period backfire R F P