Research on Neighborhoods and Larger Places


Communities and Neighborhoods –Interventions which target larger geographic units such as census tracts, police beats or sectors, “communities”, or “neighborhoods.” Note that any study targeting neighborhoods or communities is included here, regardless of the level at which the results were analyzed (e.g., micro-places, jurisdictions).

 Rigor: M=Moderately Rigorous; R= Rigorous; VR=Very Rigorous
 Y-axis: F=Focused and Tailored; G=General
 Z-axis: R=Reactive; P=Proactive; H=Highly Proactive
 Dots: Black=Effective; Gray=Mixed Results; White=No Evidence of Effect; 
       Red=Backfire effect
Author Intervention and Findings
Result Rigor Y-Axis Z-Axis
Azrael et al. (2013) District-level homicide review process led to decrease in monthly homicide counts full-circle M F P
Barthe & Stitt (2011) Increased patrol presence in an area following an abduction/homicide associated with declines in person and property calls in target area relative to comparison site full-circle M G R
Berk & MacDonald (2010) Broken windows approach to deal with homeless encampments associated with meaningful reduction in violent, property, and nuisance crimes full-circle R F P
Boydstun (1975) More field interrogations associated with fewer outdoor crimes full-circle M G P
Bynum et al. (2014) Comprehensive approach to reduce gun violence led to significant success full-circle M F P
Caeti (1999) Beats in which police used hot spots and zero tolerance had greater crime reductions than those in which police used POP and increased visibility full-circle M G P
Clapp et al. (2005) DUI prevention program and increased law enforcement led to decrease in self-reported DUI at the target university, whereas rates at the comparison campus remained stable. full-circle M G P
Cohen & Ludwig (2003) Targeted patrol against gun crime reduced shots fired by up to 34% and gun-related assault injuries by up to 71% on days the program was in action full-circle M G P
Connell et al. (2008) Officer-initiated community policing program associated with a significant reduction in violent and property crimes in the targeted area, butnot in comparable areas in the county full-circle M G P
McGarrell et al. (1999) Community crime prevention program leads to overall decrease in crime and increase in resident quality of life full-circle M F HP
Koper et al. (2016) Multi-agency partnership focused on enforcement, prosecution, and community improvement associated with reduction in crime and violence full-circle R F P
Krimmel & Mele (1998) Targeting stolen vehicle dump sites leads to reduced auto theft full-circle M F P
Lasley (1998) Street closures associated with drop in violent crime drops, but not property crime using two year time-series full-circle M F HP
Laycock (1991) Burglary declines 62 percent after door-to-door visits to gain community intelligence and increase property marking full-circle M F HP
Lindsay & McGillis (1986) Burglary reduced for 18 months after initiation of community policing and neighborhood watch program full-circle M F HP
MacDonald et al. (2016) Increased patrol presence using private police led to significant crime reductions ranging from 43-73% full-circle R G P
Mazerolle et al. (2003) [Neighborhood Beat Model] Neighborhood beat policing was associated with a reduction in overall neighborhood crime rates and a reduction in calls for police service over a long period. full-circle M G P
McGarrell et al. (2001) [Targeted Offender] Targeted offender approach involving pedestrian and traffic stops of suspicious individuals and home visits led to a reduction in firearm-related violence. full-circle M F P
McGarrell et al. (2015) Violence reduction task force employing targeted patrol and enforcement at violent gangs and areas led to a significant decline in gun crime in treatment precincts relative to control full-circle R F P
Papachristos et al. (2007) Group of Project Safe Neighborhoods initiatives associated with greater declines in homicide in the treatment neighborhoods compared to control neighborhoods full-circle M F HP
Pate et al. (1985b) Program to increase the quantity and quality of police-citizen contacts and to reduce disorder was successful in improving evaluations of police service and in reducing perceived levels of social disorder full-circle M G P
Press (1971) Police manpower increased by 40 percent in one precinct and outdoor crimes decreased compared to control precinct full-circle M G R
Saunders et al. (2015) Focused deterrence intervention targeting drug markets led to significant decreases in violent, drug, and overall crime full-circle R F HP
Sherman et al. (1995) Directed patrol to increase gun detection leads to significant increase in gun seizures and decline in gun-related crime. full-circle M F P
Skogan et al. (1995) After 18 monthly police-community meetings, reductions in some crimes and victimization using some measures but not others full-circle M F HP
Smith (2001) 92 percent reduction in crime in the target area during a crackdown. Crime reduction persisted in some parts of the neighborhood 6 months later full-circle M G P
Tita et al. (2003) Violence declined during and after the pulling levers intervention full-circle M F P
Tuffin et al. (2006) POP program resulted in positive changes in crime, perceptions of antisocial behavior, and feelings of safety after dark. full-circle M G HP
Wycoff et al. (1985) Door-to-door police visits associated with reduced victimization full-circle M G HP
Banerjee et al. (2019) Rotating sobriety checkpoints led to significant decreases in nighttime traffic crashes and deaths. However, there was some evidence to suggest that daytime crashes increased in these areas as well grey-circle VR F P
Heaton et al. (2016) Privately funded police force was associated with long-term, but not short-term, reductions in overall violent crime. No effect was observed for property crime or violent crime committed in public spaces grey-circle R G P
Jang et al. (2012) Hot spots policing with numerous traffic stops and field interviews grey-circle M G P
Johnson et al. (2017) Target hardening in burglary-hit neighborhoods creates modest prevention effects in some places grey-circle R F P
Josi et al. (2000) Larceny and burglary drop in beats with increased traffic stops compared to routine patrol grey-circle M F P
McCabe (2009) One of two narcotics enforcement initiatives was successful in reducing crime grey-circle M F P
Nunn et al. (2006) Covert drug trafficking interdiction associated with an overall crime decline in target area, but an increase in drug-related calls for service grey-circle M F P
Pate et al. (1985a) Proactive disorder arrests associated with significant reductions in total Part I crimes, personal crimes, and burglary. grey-circle M G P
Rydberg et al. (2018) Directed traffic patrol intervention to reduce violent crime was associated with both significant increases and decreases in violent crime depending on the control area used grey-circle R G P
Sedelmaier & Hipple (2016) Data-driven foot patrol intervention with elements of POP was associated with decreases in crime in treatment areas, but similar decreases were observed in control areas grey-circle M F HP
Uchida & Swatt (2013) Targeting violent repeat offenders in specific target areas found successful intervention when mixed hot spots patrol with focused offender tactics. grey-circle M F P
Beck (2010) DDACTS intervention did not lead to significant changes in crime incidents, calls for service, or traffic accidents empty M G P
Bennett (1990) Lower socioeconomic status areas that tended to be higher in crime had less surveillence and less effective neighborhood watch programs empty M G HP
Hunt et al. (2014) Predictive policing found no statistical difference in property crime empty R F P
Kelling et al. (1974) No difference in crime by beat based on the number of police cars assigned to random patrol. empty M G R
Mazerolle et al. (2003) [Shopfront Model] The establishment of a police office in a community hub (e.g., shopping center, mall) did not lead to decreases in reported crime. empty M G P
McGarrell et al. (2001) [Directed Patrol] General deterrence approach to directed police patrol, which focused on maximizing vehicle stops and enforcing traffic violations, did not reduce violent crime. empty M G P
Novak et al. (1999) No decline in burglary or robbery following proactive disorder enforcement empty M F P
Pace (2010) Order maintenance unit had no effect on offenses empty M F P
Pate et al. (1985)(Houston) Monthly newsletter with crime data failed to reduce victimizations of recipients empty VR G P
Pate et al. (1985) (Newark) Monthly newsletter with crime data failed to reduce victimizations of recipients empty VR G P
Pate et al. (1987) Community block watch has no impact on crime empty R G HP
Police Foundation (1981) No difference in crime by number of foot patrol officers assigned empty M G R
Roman et al. (2005) Gang crackdown led to no significant decrease in violent crime or drug offenses empty M G P
Sviridoff et al. (1992) Crackdown on crack market, but no change in violent crime rate empty M F P
Wycoff & Skogan (1993) No decrease in victimization after increase in police-community meetings in target district empty M G HP
Weisburd et al. (2008) Risk-focused policing program targeting juvenile risk factors has no influence on self-reported delinquency empty VR F HP
Weisburd et al. (2015) - Beats Knowledge of where police officers patrolled did not affect directed patrol at the beat level empty VR G P