Communities and Neighborhoods –Interventions which target larger geographic units such as census tracts, police beats or sectors, “communities”, or “neighborhoods.”

 Rigor: M=Moderately Rigorous; R= Rigorous; VR=Very Rigorous
 Y-axis: F=Focused and Tailored; G=General
 Z-axis: R=Reactive; P=Proactive; H=Highly Proactive


Author Intervention Result Rigor Y-Axis Z-Axis
Azrael et al. (2013) District-level homicide review process led to decrease in monthly homicide counts full-circle M F P
Barthe & Stitt (2011) Increased patrol presence in an area following an abduction/homicide associated with declines in person and property calls in target area relative to comparison site full-circle M G R
Berk & MacDonald (2010) Broken windows approach to deal with homeless encampments associated with meaningful reduction in violent, property, and nuisance crimes full-circle R F P
Boydstun (1975) More field interrogations associated with fewer outdoor crimes full-circle M G P
Bynum et al. (2014) Comprehensive approach to reduce gun violence led to significant success full-circle M F P
Caeti (1999) Beats in which police used hot spots and zero tolerance had greater crime reductions than those in which police used POP and increased visibility  full-circle M G P
Clapp et al. (2005) DUI prevention program and increased law enforcement led to decrease in self-reported DUI at the target university, whereas rates at the comparison campus remained stable. full-circle M G P
Cohen & Ludwig (2003) Targeted patrol against gun crime reduced shots fired by up to 34% and gun-related assault injuries by up to 71% on days the program was in action  full-circle M G P
Connell et al. (2008) Officer-initiated community policing program associated with a significant reduction in violent and property crimes in the targeted area, butnot in comparable areas in the county full-circle M G P
Giacomazzi (1995) Community crime prevention program leads to overall decrease in crime and increase in resident quality of life  full-circle M F HP
Koper et al. (2010) Multi-agency partnership focused on enforcement, prosecution, and community improvement associated with reduction in crime and violence full-circle R F P
Krimmel & Mele (1998) Targeting stolen vehicle dump sites leads to reduced auto theft  full-circle M F P
Lasley (1998) Street closures associated with drop in violent crime drops, but not property crime using two year time-series  full-circle M F HP
Laycock (1991) Burglary declines 62 percent after door-to-door visits to gain community intelligence and increase property marking  full-circle M F HP
Lindsay & McGillis (1986) Burglary reduced for 18 months after initiation of community policing and neighborhood watch program  full-circle M F HP
Mazerolle et al. (2003) Beat policing associated with a reduction in overall neighborhood crime rates and a reduction in calls for police service over a long period. full-circle M G P
Papachristos et al. (2007) Group of Project Safe Neighborhoods initiatives associated with greater declines in homicide in the treatment neighborhoods compared to control neighborhoods full-circle M F HP
Pate et al. (1985b) Program to increase the quantity and quality of police-citizen contacts and to reduce disorder was successful in improving evaluations of police service and in reducing perceived levels of social disorder full-circle M G P
Press (1971) Police manpower increased by 40 percent in one precinct and outdoor crimes decreased compared to control precinct full-circle M G R
Sherman et al. (1995) Directed patrol to increase gun detection leads to significant increase in gun seizures and decline in gun-related crime. full-circle M F P
Skogan et al. (1995) After 18 monthly police-community meetings, reductions in some crimes and victimization using some measures but not others full-circle M F HP
Smith (2001) 92 percent reduction in crime in the target area during a crackdown. Crime reduction persisted in some parts of the neighborhood 6 months later full-circle M G P
Tita et al. (2003) Violence declined during and after the pulling levers intervention full-circle M F P
Trojanowicz (1986) Foot patrol areas had fewer crimes than control areas full-circle M G P
Tuffin et al. (2006) POP program resulted in positive changes in crime, perceptions of antisocial behavior, and feelings of safety after dark. full-circle M G HP
Wycoff et al. (1985) Door-to-door police visits associated with reduced victimization full-circle M G HP
Jang et al. (2012) Hot spots policing with numerous traffic stops and field interviews grey-circle M G P
Josi et al. (2000) Larceny and burglary drop in beats with increased traffic stops compared to routine patrol  grey-circle M F P
McCabe (2009) One of two narcotics enforcement initiatives was successful in reducing crime grey-circle M F P
McGarrell et al. (2001) Directed patrol to focus on suspicious activities and locations, reduced violent gun crime. In contrast, a general deterrence strategy, focused on maximizing vehicle stops, did not have an effect. grey-circle M G P
Nunn et al. (2006) Covert drug trafficking interdiction associated with an overall crime decline in target area, but an increase in drug-related calls for service  grey-circle M F P
Pate et al. (1985a) Proactive disorder arrests associated with significant reductions in total Part I crimes, personal crimes, and burglary.  grey-circle M G P
Uchida & Swatt (2013)  Targeting violent repeat offenders in specific target areas found successful intervention when mixed hot spots patrol with focused offender tactics. grey-circle M F P
Bennett (1990) Lower socioeconomic status areas that tended to be higher in crime had less surveillence and less effective neighborhood watch programs  empty M G HP
Hunt et al. (2014) Predictive policing found no statistical difference in property crime empty R F P
Kelling et al. (1974) No difference in crime by beat based on the number of police cars assigned to random patrol.  empty M G R
Novak et al. (1999) No decline in burglary or robbery following proactive disorder enforcement empty M F P
Pace (2010) Order maintenance unit had no effect on offenses empty M F P
Pate et al. (1985)(Houston) Monthly newsletter with crime data failed to reduce victimizations of recipients  empty VR G P
Pate et al. (1985) (Newark) Monthly newsletter with crime data failed to reduce victimizations of recipients empty VR G P
Pate et al. (1987) Community block watch has no impact on crime empty R G HP
Police Foundation (1981) No difference in crime by number of foot patrol officers assigned empty M G R
Roman et al. (2005) Gang crackdown led to no significant decrease in violent crime or drug offenses empty M G P
Sviridoff et al. (1992) Crackdown on crack market, but no change in violent crime rate  empty M F P
Wycoff & Skogan (1993) No decrease in victimization after increase in police-community meetings in target district empty M G HP
Weisburd et al. (2008) Risk-focused policing program targeting juvenile risk factors has no influence on self-reported delinquency  empty VR F HP