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What strategies can be effective in reducing crime and disorder in policing? The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix is a research-to-practice translation tool that organizes moderate to very rigorous evaluations of police interventions visually, allowing agencies and researchers to view the field of research in this area. The Matrix is updated with all qualifying studies each year.

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Groups — Braga (2008)

Pulling levers intervention associated with significant decline in monthly gun homicide

Groups — Braga et al. (2008)

Pulling levers intervention associated with significant decline in monthly gun homicide and gun-related assault

Groups — Braga et al. (2014)

Operation Ceasefire associated with significant reduction in gang-related shootings

Groups — Bynum & Varano (2003)

Aggressive patrol and order maintenance anti-gang initiative associated with substantial reported crime decreases in two target precincts

Groups – Ariel et al. (2019)

Proactive engagement of prolific offenders led to lower offending in treated groups

Groups – Braga et al. (2001)

Operation Ceasefire was associated with significant reductions in youth homicide victimizations, shots-fired calls for service, and gun assault incidents.

Groups – Corsaro & Engel (2015)

Focused deterrence strategy targeting violent gangs led to significant decreases in various measures of violent crime

Groups – Engel et al. (2013)

Focused deterrence significantly reduced group/gang-member-involved homicides and violent firearm incidents

Groups – Fox & Novak (2018)

Focused deterrence targeting violent offenders significantly reduced homicides and gun-related assaults during the first year of the intervention

Groups – Fritsch et al. (1999) Aggressive curfew

Truancy and curfew enforcement associated with reduction in gang violence

Groups – McGarrell et al. (2006)

A “lever-pulling” strategy was associated with a 34.3% reduction in the monthly homicide rate

Groups – Papachristos and Kirk (2015)

Group Violence Reduction Strategy led to a reduction in shootings and lowered the likelihood of fatal or nonfatal victimization

Groups – Ratcliffe et al. (2017)

Gang interdiction operation led to a 22% violence reduction in the area where the gang operated

Groups – Ridgeway, Grogger, et al. (2019)

Gang injunctions were estimated to reduce total reported crime by 5% in the short term (5 years), and 18% over the long term (27 years).

Groups – Sierra-Arevalo et al. (2017)

Statewide-focused deterrence intervention was associated with a reduction in total shootings and group member-involved incidents

Individuals – Abrahamse et al. (1991)

Post-arrest case enhancement of repeat offenders increased odds of arrestees being incarcerated.

Individuals – Ariel et al. (2019)

Proactive engagement of prolific offenders led to lower offending in treated groups

Individuals – Bennett et al. (2018)

Truancy intervention led to a non-significant decrease in offending among treated students, despite control students experiencing a significant increase in offending over the same time period

Individuals – Berk et al. (1992)

Arrest of spousal abusers reduced recidivism

Individuals – Bonkiewicz et al. (2014)

Mental health post-crisis assistance program led to reductions in mental health calls for service, arrests, and emergency protective custody orders

Individuals – Casey et al. (2007)

Domestic violence victims receiving home visits have significantly less calls for service than comparison group

Individuals – Cho & Wilke (2010)

Arrest of intimate partner violence perpetrators associated with reduced victimization compared to non-arrest.

Individuals – Collins et al. (2017)

Diversion program for low-level offenders associated with significantly lower odds of a subsequent arrest and felony charge

Individuals – Dunford (1990)

Arrest warrant for domestic violence suspect reduced absent offender recidivism 50%

Individuals – Exum et al. (2014)

Suspects processed through the DV unit had significantly lower rates of re-offending

Individuals – Fox & Farrington (2015)

Behavioral profiles for burglary offenses and offenders increased arrest rates

Individuals – Fox et al. (2022)

Project Safe Neighborhoods led to reductions in violence and gun crime rates

Individuals – Goosey et al. (2017)

Domestic Abuse Service Coordination (DASC) Program led to a reduction in harm for treatment couples

Individuals – Greenspan et al. (2005)

Second Responder Program led to significant reductions in abusive acts

Individuals – Jolin et al. (1998)

Domestic violence unit designed to increase arrests and prosecutions of offenders and provide follow-up victim empowerment services associated with decline in victim-reported subsequent violence

Individuals – Knoxville P.D. (2002)

Police-probation collaborative program participants more likely to successfully complete probation

Individuals – Martin & Sherman (1986)

Targeted offenders in selective apprehension program more likely to be arrested, convicted, and incarcerated

Individuals – Messing et al. (2015)

A police-social service resulted in fewer victimization of physical violence.

Individuals – Mizrachi (2019)

Victims who received the Lethality Assessment Program (LAP) were less likely to experience future intimate partner violence

Individuals – Perrone et al. (2022)

Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) program reduced misdemeanor and felony arrests, as well as felony cases

Individuals – Sherman & Berk (1984)

Arrest condition for domestic violence associated with significantly less offender recidivism compared to separation and mediation.

Individuals – Sherman et al. (2000) (Violent Offenders)

Restorative justice conferences can be effective in reducing repeat offending for violent offenders

Individuals – Spergel et al. (2002)

Comparison of 258 program juveniles with 96 comparison youth showed the program youth had arrest levels 18 percent lower than the comparison youth over a 4-year period.

Individuals – Thomas (1998)

Coordinated Agency Network (CAN) program reduced recidivism rates and increased successful completion of probation conditions

Individuals – White et al. (2021)

Madison Addiction Recovery Initiative (MARI) reduced recidivism among participants who completed the program

Individuals – Worrall & Gaines (2006)

Police/probation officer partnership for juvenile offenders associated with citywide reductions in assault, burglary, and theft arrests

Jurisdiction – Factor (2019)

Tailored traffic enforcement program involving public participation led to significant decreases in traffic violations

Jurisdiction – Florence et al. (2011)

Information sharing between police and health agencies to improve police deployment strategies associated with substantial and significant reduction in hospital admissions related to violence

Jurisdiction – Malm & Tita (2006)

Green Teams (increased marijuana enforcement) decrease grow operations in target areas without significant displacement to surrounding areas

Jurisdiction – McGarrell et al. (2010)

Project Safe Neighborhoods cities in higher dosage contexts experienced statistically significant, though modest, declines in violent crime

Jurisdiction – Villaveces et al. (2000)

Homicide rates significantly lower on days gun ban/police intervention in effect compared to non-intervention days in 2 Columbian cities

Jurisdiction – White et al. (2003)

Comprehensive homicide initiative of enforcement and nonenforcement problem-oriented strategies led to a decrease in homicides

Micro Places – Ariel et al. (2016)

Hot spot policing by community support officers (non-sworn police employees) led to significant reductions in crime and calls for service

Micro Places – Ariel et al. (2020)

London Underground hotspot platforms receiving directed foot patrol experienced significantly fewer calls for service compared to a no-treatment control group

Micro Places – Baker & Wolfer (2003)

Problem-oriented policing project in a park reduces fear and perceptions of drug use and vandalism

Micro Places – Basford et al. (2021)

One-a-day foot patrols of 15-20 minutes significantly reduced community violence and crime harm

Micro Places – Bichler et al. (2013)

Problem-oriented policing, focusing on outreach to motel owners and operators, code enforcement, and permit ordinance to increase pressure on uncooperative motel operators

Micro Places – Bond et al. (2014)

Problem-oriented policing directed at property crime hot spots led to significant decreases in various forms of larceny, burglary, and theft

Micro Places – Braga & Bond (2008)

Focus on hot spots of crime leads to reductions in crime and disorder calls for service

Micro Places – Braga et al. (1999)

Problem-oriented policing in violent crime hot spots leads to reductions in violent and property crime, disorder and drug selling

Micro Places – Braga et al. (2012)

Safe Street Team problem-oriented policing project associated with a reduction in violent index crimes at treatment hot spots relative to comparison places

Micro Places – Bryant et al. (2015)

Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety (DDACTS) produced statistically significant decreases in robberies, commercial burglaries, and vehicle crashes

Micro Places – Caplan et al. (2021)

Risk-based policing initiative led to significantly lower violent crimes compared to comparison areas

Micro Places – Chaiken et al. (1975)

Increased police on the New York Subways at night led to reduced crime

Micro Places – Chainey et al. (2021)

Hotspot policing initiative led to significant decrease in robbery rates

Micro Places – Di Tella & Schargrodsky (2004)

Blocks that received extra police protection experienced significantly fewer car thefts than the rest of the neighborhoods.

Micro Places – Eck & Wartell (1998)

Property managers who have a meeting with police and threat of nuisance abatement report less crime, receiving letter somewhat effective in reducing crime

Micro Places – Gibson et al. (2017)

Targeted hot spot patrols led to a reduction in crime despite an overall decrease in dosage

Micro Places – Gómez et al. (2021)

Public surveillance cameras reduced property and violent crimes, with no evidence of crime displacement

Micro Places – Groff et al. (2015) (Offender Focused)

An approach focusing on known offenders led to a reduction in violent crime and violent felonies

Micro Places – Hope (1994)

Case studies of problem-oriented policing and drug-market locations. Forced closure or sale of property reduced drug dealing

Micro Places – Jim et al. (2006)

Community-oriented policing in a retail shopping center led to reduced perception of gang activity and fear of crime

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Colorado Springs

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Glendale

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Kansas City

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Newark

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kochel et al. (2015) Directed patrol

Directed patrol led to reduction in calls for service

Micro Places – Kochel et al. (2015) Problem solving

Problem-oriented policing led to reduction in calls for service

Micro Places – Koper et al. (2021)

Hot spot policing intervention led to significant reduction in every crime category studied.

Micro Places – Lawton et al. (2005)

Police officers on drug corners in Philadelphia were associated with significant localized intervention impacts for both violent and drug crimes.

Micro Places – Mazeika (2014)

Crackdown intervention focusing on saturation patrol and enforcement activity led to significant decreases in robberies during the intervention period

Micro Places – Mazerolle, Price et al. (2000)

The use of civil remedies and third party policing associated with reduced drug crime, especially in residential locations

Micro Places – Mohler et al. (2015)

Predictive policing models led to reduction in crime

Micro Places – Munyo & Rossi (2020)

Police-monitored surveillance cameras reduced outdoor crimes such as robbery and theft

Micro Places – Piza et al. (2015)

CCTV increased identification of criminal activity and a reduction of crime

Micro Places – Potts (2020)

Use of patrol car lights was associated with a reduction in auto thefts

Micro Places – Ratcliffe et al. (2011)

Foot patrol associated with a significant decrease in crime in hot spots that reach a threshold level of pre-intervention violence

Micro Places – Santos & Santos (2015)

Micro-time hot spots approach reduced theft from vehicles

Micro Places – Santos & Santos (2021)

Directed patrols in micro-time hot spots reduced residential burglary and theft from vehicles

Micro Places – Sherman & Weisburd (1995)

Substantial increases in police patrol associated with reduction in total crime calls and more significant reduction in disorder at high crime hot spots

Micro Places – Taylor et al. (2011) (POP)

Substantial increases in police patrol associated with reduction in total crime calls and more significant reduction in disorder at high crime hot spots

Micro Places – Telep et al. (2014)

Spending approximately 15 minutes at treatment hot spots reduced calls for service and crime incidents.

Micro Places – Weisburd & Green (1995)

Crackdowns on drug hot spots reduced disorder; no effects on violence or property crime

Micro Places – Weisburd et al. (2015) Hot spots

Treatment patrol areas drawn from automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems experienced significant increases in unallocated patrol time and a decrease in crime

Micro Places – White & Katz (2013)

Problem-oriented policing at convenience store locations led to a 40% decline in calls for service at target stores.

Micro Places – Williams & Coupe (2017)

15-minute police patrols were associated with significant reductions in crime and anti-social behavior calls for service, relative to 5-minute patrols

Neighborhood – Azrael et al. (2013)

District-level homicide review process led to decrease in monthly homicide counts

Neighborhood – Barthe & Stitt (2011)

Increased patrol presence in an area following an abduction/homicide associated with declines in person and property calls in target area relative to comparison site

Neighborhood – Berk & MacDonald (2010)

Broken windows approach to deal with homeless encampments associated with meaningful reduction in violent, property, and nuisance crimes

Neighborhood – Boydstun (1975)

More field interrogations associated with fewer outdoor crimes

Neighborhood – Bynum et al. (2014)

Comprehensive approach to reduce gun violence led to significant success

Neighborhood – Caeti (1999)

Beats in which police used hot spots and zero tolerance had greater crime reductions than those in which police used POP and increased visibility

Neighborhood – Cid (2019)

Saturation patrol program that increased police presence in high-crime areas led to reduction in robberies

Neighborhood – Clapp et al. (2005)

DUI prevention program and increased law enforcement led to decrease in self-reported DUI at the target university, whereas rates at the comparison campus remained stable.

Neighborhood – Cohen & Ludwig (2003)

Targeted patrol against gun crime reduced shots fired by up to 34% and gun-related assault injuries by up to 71% on days the program was in action

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