Search the Matrix

What strategies can be effective in reducing crime and disorder in policing? The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix is a research-to-practice translation tool that organizes moderate to very rigorous evaluations of police interventions visually, allowing agencies and researchers to view the field of research in this area. The Matrix is updated with all qualifying studies each year.

  • Reset

Groups — Bynum & Varano (2003)

Aggressive patrol and order maintenance anti-gang initiative associated with substantial reported crime decreases in two target precincts

Groups – Fritsch et al. (1999) Aggressive curfew

Truancy and curfew enforcement associated with reduction in gang violence

Groups – Papachristos and Kirk (2015)

Group Violence Reduction Strategy led to a reduction in shootings and lowered the likelihood of fatal or nonfatal victimization

Groups – Ratcliffe et al. (2017)

Gang interdiction operation led to a 22% violence reduction in the area where the gang operated

Groups – Ridgeway, Grogger, et al. (2019)

Gang injunctions were estimated to reduce total reported crime by 5% in the short term (5 years), and 18% over the long term (27 years).

Groups – Sierra-Arevalo et al. (2017)

Statewide-focused deterrence intervention was associated with a reduction in total shootings and group member-involved incidents

Individuals – Fox et al. (2022)

Project Safe Neighborhoods led to reductions in violence and gun crime rates

Individuals – Spergel et al. (2002)

Comparison of 258 program juveniles with 96 comparison youth showed the program youth had arrest levels 18 percent lower than the comparison youth over a 4-year period.

Jurisdiction – Factor (2019)

Tailored traffic enforcement program involving public participation led to significant decreases in traffic violations

Jurisdiction – Florence et al. (2011)

Information sharing between police and health agencies to improve police deployment strategies associated with substantial and significant reduction in hospital admissions related to violence

Jurisdiction – Malm & Tita (2006)

Green Teams (increased marijuana enforcement) decrease grow operations in target areas without significant displacement to surrounding areas

Jurisdiction – McGarrell et al. (2010)

Project Safe Neighborhoods cities in higher dosage contexts experienced statistically significant, though modest, declines in violent crime

Jurisdiction – Villaveces et al. (2000)

Homicide rates significantly lower on days gun ban/police intervention in effect compared to non-intervention days in 2 Columbian cities

Jurisdiction – White et al. (2003)

Comprehensive homicide initiative of enforcement and nonenforcement problem-oriented strategies led to a decrease in homicides

Micro Places – Ariel et al. (2016)

Hot spot policing by community support officers (non-sworn police employees) led to significant reductions in crime and calls for service

Micro Places – Ariel et al. (2020)

London Underground hotspot platforms receiving directed foot patrol experienced significantly fewer calls for service compared to a no-treatment control group

Micro Places – Basford et al. (2021)

One-a-day foot patrols of 15-20 minutes significantly reduced community violence and crime harm

Micro Places – Bichler et al. (2013)

Problem-oriented policing, focusing on outreach to motel owners and operators, code enforcement, and permit ordinance to increase pressure on uncooperative motel operators

Micro Places – Braga & Bond (2008)

Focus on hot spots of crime leads to reductions in crime and disorder calls for service

Micro Places – Bryant et al. (2015)

Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety (DDACTS) produced statistically significant decreases in robberies, commercial burglaries, and vehicle crashes

Micro Places – Caplan et al. (2021)

Risk-based policing initiative led to significantly lower violent crimes compared to comparison areas

Micro Places – Chaiken et al. (1975)

Increased police on the New York Subways at night led to reduced crime

Micro Places – Chainey et al. (2021)

Hotspot policing initiative led to significant decrease in robbery rates

Micro Places – Gibson et al. (2017)

Targeted hot spot patrols led to a reduction in crime despite an overall decrease in dosage

Micro Places – Gómez et al. (2021)

Public surveillance cameras reduced property and violent crimes, with no evidence of crime displacement

Micro Places – Groff et al. (2015) (Offender Focused)

An approach focusing on known offenders led to a reduction in violent crime and violent felonies

Micro Places – Jim et al. (2006)

Community-oriented policing in a retail shopping center led to reduced perception of gang activity and fear of crime

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Colorado Springs

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Glendale

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Kansas City

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Newark

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kochel et al. (2015) Directed patrol

Directed patrol led to reduction in calls for service

Micro Places – Koper et al. (2021)

Hot spot policing intervention led to significant reduction in every crime category studied.

Micro Places – Lawton et al. (2005)

Police officers on drug corners in Philadelphia were associated with significant localized intervention impacts for both violent and drug crimes.

Micro Places – Mazeika (2014)

Crackdown intervention focusing on saturation patrol and enforcement activity led to significant decreases in robberies during the intervention period

Micro Places – Mohler et al. (2015)

Predictive policing models led to reduction in crime

Micro Places – Munyo & Rossi (2020)

Police-monitored surveillance cameras reduced outdoor crimes such as robbery and theft

Micro Places – Piza et al. (2015)

CCTV increased identification of criminal activity and a reduction of crime

Micro Places – Potts (2020)

Use of patrol car lights was associated with a reduction in auto thefts

Micro Places – Ratcliffe et al. (2011)

Foot patrol associated with a significant decrease in crime in hot spots that reach a threshold level of pre-intervention violence

Micro Places – Santos & Santos (2021)

Directed patrols in micro-time hot spots reduced residential burglary and theft from vehicles

Micro Places – Sherman & Weisburd (1995)

Substantial increases in police patrol associated with reduction in total crime calls and more significant reduction in disorder at high crime hot spots

Micro Places – Taylor et al. (2011) (POP)

Substantial increases in police patrol associated with reduction in total crime calls and more significant reduction in disorder at high crime hot spots

Micro Places – Telep et al. (2014)

Spending approximately 15 minutes at treatment hot spots reduced calls for service and crime incidents.

Micro Places – Weisburd et al. (2015) Hot spots

Treatment patrol areas drawn from automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems experienced significant increases in unallocated patrol time and a decrease in crime

Micro Places – White & Katz (2013)

Problem-oriented policing at convenience store locations led to a 40% decline in calls for service at target stores.

Micro Places – Williams & Coupe (2017)

15-minute police patrols were associated with significant reductions in crime and anti-social behavior calls for service, relative to 5-minute patrols

Neighborhood – Azrael et al. (2013)

District-level homicide review process led to decrease in monthly homicide counts

Neighborhood – Berk & MacDonald (2010)

Broken windows approach to deal with homeless encampments associated with meaningful reduction in violent, property, and nuisance crimes

Neighborhood – Boydstun (1975)

More field interrogations associated with fewer outdoor crimes

Neighborhood – Bynum et al. (2014)

Comprehensive approach to reduce gun violence led to significant success

Neighborhood – Caeti (1999)

Beats in which police used hot spots and zero tolerance had greater crime reductions than those in which police used POP and increased visibility

Neighborhood – Cid (2019)

Saturation patrol program that increased police presence in high-crime areas led to reduction in robberies

Neighborhood – Clapp et al. (2005)

DUI prevention program and increased law enforcement led to decrease in self-reported DUI at the target university, whereas rates at the comparison campus remained stable.

Neighborhood – Cohen & Ludwig (2003)

Targeted patrol against gun crime reduced shots fired by up to 34% and gun-related assault injuries by up to 71% on days the program was in action

Neighborhood – Connell et al. (2008)

Officer-initiated community policing program associated with a significant reduction in violent and property crimes in the targeted area, butnot in comparable areas in the county

Neighborhood – Corsaro et al. (2012)

Pulling levers intervention: Identification of drug and violence hot spots followed by notification and resource delivery to individuals convicted of nonviolent nonfelony crimes

Neighborhood – García et al. (2013)

Reform initiative that combined community and problem-oriented policing elements led to significant reductions in several types of crime, including homicides and brawls.

Neighborhood – Koper et al. (2016)

Multi-agency partnership focused on enforcement, prosecution, and community improvement associated with reduction in crime and violence

Neighborhood – Krimmel & Mele (1998)

Targeting stolen vehicle dump sites leads to reduced auto theft

Neighborhood – Lancashire Constabulary (2008)

Problem-oriented policing with the SARA model reduced crime and calls for service without displacing crime to adjacent areas

Neighborhood – MacDonald et al. (2016)

Increased patrol presence using private police led to significant crime reductions ranging from 43-73%

Neighborhood – Mazerolle et al. (2003) [Neighborhood Beat Model]

Neighborhood beat policing was associated with a reduction in overall neighborhood crime rates and a reduction in calls for police service over a long period.

Neighborhood – McGarrell et al. (2001) [Targeted Offender Approach]

Targeted offender approach involving pedestrian and traffic stops of suspicious individuals and home visits led to a reduction in firearm-related violence.

Neighborhood – McGarrell et al. (2015)

Violence reduction task force employing targeted patrol and enforcement at violent gangs and areas led to a significant decline in gun crime in treatment precincts relative to control

Neighborhood – Pate et al. (1985b)

Program to increase the quantity and quality of police-citizen contacts and to reduce disorder was successful in improving evaluations of police service and in reducing perceived levels of social disorder

Neighborhood – Robin et al. (2020)

Community Safety Partnership (CSP) reduced property crimes, overall crime rates, and calls for service in public housing developments

Neighborhood – Sherman et al. (1995)

Directed patrol to increase gun detection leads to significant increase in gun seizures and decline in gun-related crime.

Neighborhood – Smith (2001)

92 percent reduction in crime in the target area during a crackdown. Crime reduction persisted in some parts of the neighborhood 6 months later

Neighborhood – Tita et al. (2003)

Violence declined during and after the pulling levers intervention

Neighborhood – Uchida & Swatt (2013) [Chronic Location and Offender Components]

Targeting violent repeat offenders in specific target areas found successful intervention when mixed hot spots patrol with focused offender tactics.

Groups — Cahill et al. (2008)

Gang reduction program led to decrease of gang-related incidents in the target area, but similar decrease observed in the comparison area

Jurisdiction – Fell et al. (2005)

Increased DUI enforcement lead to declines in drinking-and-driving fatal crashes in two states but not two others

Jurisdiction – McGarrell et al. (2012)

Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative includes strategic problem-solving model that increased partnerships among federal, state, and local law enforcement and prosecution agencies as well as community institutions

Micro Places – Ariel & Partridge (2017)

Hot spots policing at high-crime bus stops was associated with a significant reduction in driver incident reports but also a significant increase in victim-generated crime

Micro Places – Blattman et al. (2021)

Combination of hot spots policing and municipal services led to significant crime reductions that were offset by larger displacement effects

Micro Places – Bryson (2019)

Increased police patrols within hot spots led to reductions in high priority calls for service; Mixed results, however, were found for other offense types

Micro Places – Carter et al. (2021)

Place-based policing led to significant reductions in violent crime and non-significant decreases in property crime and drug overdoses

Micro Places – Chainey (2022)

The distribution of forensic property marking kits significantly reduced burglaries during a six-month follow-up period.

Micro Places – Chainey et al. (2023)

Hotspot policing led to significant reduction in robberies and thefts, but no significant effects were found for assaults or vehicle crime

Micro Places – Circo & McGarrell (2021)

The installment of hundreds of high definition CCTV cameras had mixed effects on property crimes and no significant impact on violent crime.

Micro Places – Cohen et al. (2003)

Police raids on nuisance bars suppressed drug activity around those bars during the raids, with effects vanishing afterwards.

Micro Places – Collazos et al. (2021)

Hotspot policing led to a significant reduction in reported car thefts, but no change in motorbike thefts, personal robberies, homicides, or assaults.

Micro Places – Koper et al. (2013)

Short-term patrols with LPR devices reduced different crimes depending on how the LPRs were used

Micro Places – Koper et al. (2015)

Crime declined in hot spots that received higher levels of dosage, but greater use of mobile computing technology at hot spots did not enhance outcomes

Micro Places – Koper et al. (2022)

Hot spot patrols with license plate readers increased stolen vehicle recovery, however, it did not lead to a crime reduction.

Micro Places – La Vigne et al. (2011) Baltimore

Police monitored CCTV cameras reduce crime in one Baltimore site, but not the other

Micro Places – La Vigne et al. (2011) Chicago

Police monitored CCTV cameras reduce crime in one Chicago site, but not the other

Micro Places – Lai et al. (2019)

Police monitored CCTV cameras reduced robbery incidents in treatment sites but did not significantly impact other types of property crime

Micro Places – Novak et al. (2016)

Foot patrol effect initially reduced violent crime, but this effect soon faded

Micro Places – Piza (2018)

Installation of CCTV cameras led to significant reductions in auto thefts but did not impact theft from auto or violent crime incidents

Micro Places – Piza & O’Hara (2014)

Saturation foot patrol produced reductions in violent crime, with evidence of both temporal and spatial displacement

Micro Places – Robin et al. (2021)

Police-operated CCTV cameras led to increased crime but also improved case clearances

Micro Places – Rosenfeld et al. (2014) (Directed patrol + enforcement)

Directed patrol plus enforcement activities reduced total firearm violence, but produced no change in firearm robberies

Micro Places – Sherman & Rogan (1995)

Crack house raids reduced crime for about 12 days; crime reductions decayed quickly

Micro Places – Sherman et al. (1989)

Repeat Call Address Policing (RECAP) had no impact on calls at commercial addresses but reduced calls at residential addresses

Micro Places – Stephenson (2017)

Saturation patrol within hot spots did not reduce crime or calls for service overall, but effects varied across targeted locations

Micro Places – Wheeler & Phillips (2018)

Combination of automatic license plate readers and temporary roadblocks was associated with crime declines in some analyses and crime increases in others

Micro Places: Groff & Taniguchi (2019)

Citizen burglary notifications in high-risk areas did not reduce burglary in either of the two counties where it was tested but did produce a significant reduction when data from both counties was combined

Micro Places: Hegarty et al. (2014)

Hot spots policing design using both visibility and visibility/activity, both of which reduced crimes and calls for service.

  • Reset