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What strategies can be effective in reducing crime and disorder in policing? The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix is a research-to-practice translation tool that organizes moderate to very rigorous evaluations of police interventions visually, allowing agencies and researchers to view the field of research in this area. The Matrix is updated with all qualifying studies each year.

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Micro Places – Ariel et al. (2016)

Hot spot policing by community support officers (non-sworn police employees) led to significant reductions in crime and calls for service

Micro Places – Ariel et al. (2020)

London Underground hotspot platforms receiving directed foot patrol experienced significantly fewer calls for service compared to a no-treatment control group

Micro Places – Basford et al. (2021)

One-a-day foot patrols of 15-20 minutes significantly reduced community violence and crime harm

Micro Places – Bryant et al. (2015)

Data-Driven Approaches to Crime and Traffic Safety (DDACTS) produced statistically significant decreases in robberies, commercial burglaries, and vehicle crashes

Micro Places – Caplan et al. (2021)

Risk-based policing initiative led to significantly lower violent crimes compared to comparison areas

Micro Places – Chaiken et al. (1975)

Increased police on the New York Subways at night led to reduced crime

Micro Places – Chainey et al. (2021)

Hotspot policing initiative led to significant decrease in robbery rates

Micro Places – Gibson et al. (2017)

Targeted hot spot patrols led to a reduction in crime despite an overall decrease in dosage

Micro Places – Gómez et al. (2021)

Public surveillance cameras reduced property and violent crimes, with no evidence of crime displacement

Micro Places – Jim et al. (2006)

Community-oriented policing in a retail shopping center led to reduced perception of gang activity and fear of crime

Micro Places – Kochel et al. (2015) Directed patrol

Directed patrol led to reduction in calls for service

Micro Places – Koper et al. (2021)

Hot spot policing intervention led to significant reduction in every crime category studied.

Micro Places – Lawton et al. (2005)

Police officers on drug corners in Philadelphia were associated with significant localized intervention impacts for both violent and drug crimes.

Micro Places – Mazeika (2014)

Crackdown intervention focusing on saturation patrol and enforcement activity led to significant decreases in robberies during the intervention period

Micro Places – Mohler et al. (2015)

Predictive policing models led to reduction in crime

Micro Places – Munyo & Rossi (2020)

Police-monitored surveillance cameras reduced outdoor crimes such as robbery and theft

Micro Places – Piza et al. (2015)

CCTV increased identification of criminal activity and a reduction of crime

Micro Places – Potts (2020)

Use of patrol car lights was associated with a reduction in auto thefts

Micro Places – Ratcliffe et al. (2011)

Foot patrol associated with a significant decrease in crime in hot spots that reach a threshold level of pre-intervention violence

Micro Places – Santos & Santos (2021)

Directed patrols in micro-time hot spots reduced residential burglary and theft from vehicles

Micro Places – Sherman & Weisburd (1995)

Substantial increases in police patrol associated with reduction in total crime calls and more significant reduction in disorder at high crime hot spots

Micro Places – Taylor et al. (2011) (POP)

Substantial increases in police patrol associated with reduction in total crime calls and more significant reduction in disorder at high crime hot spots

Micro Places – Telep et al. (2014)

Spending approximately 15 minutes at treatment hot spots reduced calls for service and crime incidents.

Micro Places – Weisburd et al. (2015) Hot spots

Treatment patrol areas drawn from automatic vehicle location (AVL) systems experienced significant increases in unallocated patrol time and a decrease in crime

Micro Places – Williams & Coupe (2017)

15-minute police patrols were associated with significant reductions in crime and anti-social behavior calls for service, relative to 5-minute patrols

Micro Places – Ariel & Partridge (2017)

Hot spots policing at high-crime bus stops was associated with a significant reduction in driver incident reports but also a significant increase in victim-generated crime

Micro Places – Bryson (2019)

Increased police patrols within hot spots led to reductions in high priority calls for service; Mixed results, however, were found for other offense types

Micro Places – Carter et al. (2021)

Place-based policing led to significant reductions in violent crime and non-significant decreases in property crime and drug overdoses

Micro Places – Circo & McGarrell (2021)

The installment of hundreds of high definition CCTV cameras had mixed effects on property crimes and no significant impact on violent crime.

Micro Places – Collazos et al. (2021)

Hotspot policing led to a significant reduction in reported car thefts, but no change in motorbike thefts, personal robberies, homicides, or assaults.

Micro Places – Koper et al. (2015)

Crime declined in hot spots that received higher levels of dosage, but greater use of mobile computing technology at hot spots did not enhance outcomes

Micro Places – Koper et al. (2022)

Hot spot patrols with license plate readers increased stolen vehicle recovery, however, it did not lead to a crime reduction.

Micro Places – La Vigne et al. (2011) Baltimore

Police monitored CCTV cameras reduce crime in one Baltimore site, but not the other

Micro Places – La Vigne et al. (2011) Chicago

Police monitored CCTV cameras reduce crime in one Chicago site, but not the other

Micro Places – Lai et al. (2019)

Police monitored CCTV cameras reduced robbery incidents in treatment sites but did not significantly impact other types of property crime

Micro Places – Novak et al. (2016)

Foot patrol effect initially reduced violent crime, but this effect soon faded

Micro Places – Piza (2018)

Installation of CCTV cameras led to significant reductions in auto thefts but did not impact theft from auto or violent crime incidents

Micro Places – Piza & O’Hara (2014)

Saturation foot patrol produced reductions in violent crime, with evidence of both temporal and spatial displacement

Micro Places – Robin et al. (2021)

Police-operated CCTV cameras led to increased crime but also improved case clearances

Micro Places – Stephenson (2017)

Saturation patrol within hot spots did not reduce crime or calls for service overall, but effects varied across targeted locations

Micro Places: Hegarty et al. (2014)

Hot spots policing design using both visibility and visibility/activity, both of which reduced crimes and calls for service.

Micro Places – Bennett et al. (2017)

Mobile police van employing elements of hot spots policing and procedural justice did not significantly impact reported crime or community perceptions of police

Micro Places – Gerell (2016)

Actively monitored CCTV intervention did not significantly impact violent crime

Micro Places – Groff et al. (2015) (Foot patrol)

Foot patrol did not lead to reduction in violent crime

Micro Places – Lum et al. (2010)

Use of license plate readers mounted on patrol cars in auto theft hot spot areas not associated with declines in auto crime or crime generally in two jurisdictions

Micro Places – Rosenfeld et al. (2014) (Directed patrol only)

The directed patrol intervention had no significant impact on any of the outcome measures.

Micro Places – Schaefer et al. (2019)

Directed patrol at both city and suburban hot spots did not impact crime incidents or calls for service

Micro Places – Taylor et al. (2011) (Directed patrol)

Saturation/directed patrol in hot spots not associated with a significant decline in crime in the post-intervention period

Micro Places – Weisburd et al. (2012)

Broken windows policing had no evidence of an effect in calls for service

Micro Places – Devlin & Gottfredson (2018)

Schools with resources officers associated with significantly higher rates of both recorded and reported crime

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