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What strategies can be effective in reducing crime and disorder in policing? The Evidence-Based Policing Matrix is a research-to-practice translation tool that organizes moderate to very rigorous evaluations of police interventions visually, allowing agencies and researchers to view the field of research in this area. The Matrix is updated with all qualifying studies each year.

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Groups — Braga (2008)

Pulling levers intervention associated with significant decline in monthly gun homicide

Groups — Braga et al. (2008)

Pulling levers intervention associated with significant decline in monthly gun homicide and gun-related assault

Groups — Braga et al. (2014)

Operation Ceasefire associated with significant reduction in gang-related shootings

Groups – Ariel et al. (2019)

Proactive engagement of prolific offenders led to lower offending in treated groups

Groups – Braga et al. (2001)

Operation Ceasefire was associated with significant reductions in youth homicide victimizations, shots-fired calls for service, and gun assault incidents.

Groups – Corsaro & Engel (2015)

Focused deterrence strategy targeting violent gangs led to significant decreases in various measures of violent crime

Groups – Engel et al. (2013)

Focused deterrence significantly reduced group/gang-member-involved homicides and violent firearm incidents

Groups – Fox & Novak (2018)

Focused deterrence targeting violent offenders significantly reduced homicides and gun-related assaults during the first year of the intervention

Groups – Fritsch et al. (1999) Aggressive curfew

Truancy and curfew enforcement associated with reduction in gang violence

Groups – McGarrell et al. (2006)

A “lever-pulling” strategy was associated with a 34.3% reduction in the monthly homicide rate

Groups – Papachristos and Kirk (2015)

Group Violence Reduction Strategy led to a reduction in shootings and lowered the likelihood of fatal or nonfatal victimization

Groups – Ratcliffe et al. (2017)

Gang interdiction operation led to a 22% violence reduction in the area where the gang operated

Groups – Ridgeway, Grogger, et al. (2019)

Gang injunctions were estimated to reduce total reported crime by 5% in the short term (5 years), and 18% over the long term (27 years).

Groups – Sierra-Arevalo et al. (2017)

Statewide-focused deterrence intervention was associated with a reduction in total shootings and group member-involved incidents

Individuals – Abrahamse et al. (1991)

Post-arrest case enhancement of repeat offenders increased odds of arrestees being incarcerated.

Individuals – Ariel et al. (2019)

Proactive engagement of prolific offenders led to lower offending in treated groups

Individuals – Bennett et al. (2018)

Truancy intervention led to a non-significant decrease in offending among treated students, despite control students experiencing a significant increase in offending over the same time period

Individuals – Berk et al. (1992)

Arrest of spousal abusers reduced recidivism

Individuals – Bonkiewicz et al. (2014)

Mental health post-crisis assistance program led to reductions in mental health calls for service, arrests, and emergency protective custody orders

Individuals – Casey et al. (2007)

Domestic violence victims receiving home visits have significantly less calls for service than comparison group

Individuals – Collins et al. (2017)

Diversion program for low-level offenders associated with significantly lower odds of a subsequent arrest and felony charge

Individuals – Dunford (1990)

Arrest warrant for domestic violence suspect reduced absent offender recidivism 50%

Individuals – Exum et al. (2014)

Suspects processed through the DV unit had significantly lower rates of re-offending

Individuals – Fox & Farrington (2015)

Behavioral profiles for burglary offenses and offenders increased arrest rates

Individuals – Fox et al. (2022)

Project Safe Neighborhoods led to reductions in violence and gun crime rates

Individuals – Goosey et al. (2017)

Domestic Abuse Service Coordination (DASC) Program led to a reduction in harm for treatment couples

Individuals – Greenspan et al. (2005)

Second Responder Program led to significant reductions in abusive acts

Individuals – Jolin et al. (1998)

Domestic violence unit designed to increase arrests and prosecutions of offenders and provide follow-up victim empowerment services associated with decline in victim-reported subsequent violence

Individuals – Knoxville P.D. (2002)

Police-probation collaborative program participants more likely to successfully complete probation

Individuals – Martin & Sherman (1986)

Targeted offenders in selective apprehension program more likely to be arrested, convicted, and incarcerated

Individuals – Messing et al. (2015)

A police-social service resulted in fewer victimization of physical violence.

Individuals – Mizrachi (2019)

Victims who received the Lethality Assessment Program (LAP) were less likely to experience future intimate partner violence

Individuals – Perrone et al. (2022)

Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) program reduced misdemeanor and felony arrests, as well as felony cases

Individuals – Sherman & Berk (1984)

Arrest condition for domestic violence associated with significantly less offender recidivism compared to separation and mediation.

Individuals – Spergel et al. (2002)

Comparison of 258 program juveniles with 96 comparison youth showed the program youth had arrest levels 18 percent lower than the comparison youth over a 4-year period.

Individuals – Thomas (1998)

Coordinated Agency Network (CAN) program reduced recidivism rates and increased successful completion of probation conditions

Individuals – White et al. (2021)

Madison Addiction Recovery Initiative (MARI) reduced recidivism among participants who completed the program

Individuals – Worrall & Gaines (2006)

Police/probation officer partnership for juvenile offenders associated with citywide reductions in assault, burglary, and theft arrests

Jurisdiction – Factor (2019)

Tailored traffic enforcement program involving public participation led to significant decreases in traffic violations

Jurisdiction – Florence et al. (2011)

Information sharing between police and health agencies to improve police deployment strategies associated with substantial and significant reduction in hospital admissions related to violence

Jurisdiction – Malm & Tita (2006)

Green Teams (increased marijuana enforcement) decrease grow operations in target areas without significant displacement to surrounding areas

Jurisdiction – McGarrell et al. (2010)

Project Safe Neighborhoods cities in higher dosage contexts experienced statistically significant, though modest, declines in violent crime

Jurisdiction – Villaveces et al. (2000)

Homicide rates significantly lower on days gun ban/police intervention in effect compared to non-intervention days in 2 Columbian cities

Jurisdiction – White et al. (2003)

Comprehensive homicide initiative of enforcement and nonenforcement problem-oriented strategies led to a decrease in homicides

Micro Places – Baker & Wolfer (2003)

Problem-oriented policing project in a park reduces fear and perceptions of drug use and vandalism

Micro Places – Bichler et al. (2013)

Problem-oriented policing, focusing on outreach to motel owners and operators, code enforcement, and permit ordinance to increase pressure on uncooperative motel operators

Micro Places – Bond et al. (2014)

Problem-oriented policing directed at property crime hot spots led to significant decreases in various forms of larceny, burglary, and theft

Micro Places – Braga & Bond (2008)

Focus on hot spots of crime leads to reductions in crime and disorder calls for service

Micro Places – Braga et al. (1999)

Problem-oriented policing in violent crime hot spots leads to reductions in violent and property crime, disorder and drug selling

Micro Places – Braga et al. (2012)

Safe Street Team problem-oriented policing project associated with a reduction in violent index crimes at treatment hot spots relative to comparison places

Micro Places – Eck & Wartell (1998)

Property managers who have a meeting with police and threat of nuisance abatement report less crime, receiving letter somewhat effective in reducing crime

Micro Places – Groff et al. (2015) (Offender Focused)

An approach focusing on known offenders led to a reduction in violent crime and violent felonies

Micro Places – Hope (1994)

Case studies of problem-oriented policing and drug-market locations. Forced closure or sale of property reduced drug dealing

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Colorado Springs

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Glendale

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Kansas City

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kennedy et al. (2015) Newark

Allocating police resources to high-risk areas, derived from risk terrain modeling (RTM) reduced crime in target areas

Micro Places – Kochel et al. (2015) Problem solving

Problem-oriented policing led to reduction in calls for service

Micro Places – Mazerolle, Price et al. (2000)

The use of civil remedies and third party policing associated with reduced drug crime, especially in residential locations

Micro Places – Santos & Santos (2015)

Micro-time hot spots approach reduced theft from vehicles

Micro Places – Weisburd & Green (1995)

Crackdowns on drug hot spots reduced disorder; no effects on violence or property crime

Micro Places – White & Katz (2013)

Problem-oriented policing at convenience store locations led to a 40% decline in calls for service at target stores.

Neighborhood – Azrael et al. (2013)

District-level homicide review process led to decrease in monthly homicide counts

Neighborhood – Berk & MacDonald (2010)

Broken windows approach to deal with homeless encampments associated with meaningful reduction in violent, property, and nuisance crimes

Neighborhood – Bynum et al. (2014)

Comprehensive approach to reduce gun violence led to significant success

Neighborhood – Corsaro et al. (2012)

Pulling levers intervention: Identification of drug and violence hot spots followed by notification and resource delivery to individuals convicted of nonviolent nonfelony crimes

Neighborhood – Koper et al. (2016)

Multi-agency partnership focused on enforcement, prosecution, and community improvement associated with reduction in crime and violence

Neighborhood – Krimmel & Mele (1998)

Targeting stolen vehicle dump sites leads to reduced auto theft

Neighborhood – Lancashire Constabulary (2008)

Problem-oriented policing with the SARA model reduced crime and calls for service without displacing crime to adjacent areas

Neighborhood – Lasley (1998)

Street closures associated with drop in violent crime drops, but not property crime using two year time-series

Neighborhood – Laycock (1991)

Burglary declines 62 percent after door-to-door visits to gain community intelligence and increase property marking

Neighborhood – Lindsay & McGillis (1986)

Burglary reduced for 18 months after initiation of community policing and neighborhood watch program

Neighborhood – McGarrell et al. (1999)

Community crime prevention program leads to overall decrease in crime and increase in resident quality of life

Neighborhood – McGarrell et al. (2001) [Targeted Offender Approach]

Targeted offender approach involving pedestrian and traffic stops of suspicious individuals and home visits led to a reduction in firearm-related violence.

Neighborhood – McGarrell et al. (2015)

Violence reduction task force employing targeted patrol and enforcement at violent gangs and areas led to a significant decline in gun crime in treatment precincts relative to control

Neighborhood – Papachristos et al. (2007)

Group of Project Safe Neighborhoods initiatives associated with greater declines in homicide in the treatment neighborhoods compared to control neighborhoods

Neighborhood – Robin et al. (2020)

Community Safety Partnership (CSP) reduced property crimes, overall crime rates, and calls for service in public housing developments

Neighborhood – Saunders et al. (2017) [Roanoke, VA]

Drug Market Initiative (DMI) in Roanoke, Virginia significantly reduced total and property crimes in one neighborhood and violent crimes in another neighborhood

Neighborhood – Sherman et al. (1995)

Directed patrol to increase gun detection leads to significant increase in gun seizures and decline in gun-related crime.

Neighborhood – Skogan et al. (1995)

After 18 monthly police-community meetings, reductions in some crimes and victimization using some measures but not others

Neighborhood – Tita et al. (2003)

Violence declined during and after the pulling levers intervention

Neighborhood – Uchida & Swatt (2013) [Chronic Location and Offender Components]

Targeting violent repeat offenders in specific target areas found successful intervention when mixed hot spots patrol with focused offender tactics.

Neighborhood – Weisburd et al. (2020)

Problem-oriented policing reduced property crime without crime displacement

Groups — Cahill et al. (2008)

Gang reduction program led to decrease of gang-related incidents in the target area, but similar decrease observed in the comparison area

Groups – Williams et al. (2014)

Community Initiative to Reduce Violence (CIRV) reduced violent offending and weapon carrying over two years, although no significant differences were found in the first year or for non-violent offenses

Individuals – Goldstein et al. (2021)

Youth in a diversion program were significantly less likely to experience an arrest compared to control youth; Differences were not significant when comparing youth to a quasi-control matched group

Individuals – Pate & Hamilton (1992)

Arrest for domestic violence had a deterrent effect for employed offenders, but increased recidivism among unemployed offenders

Individuals – Ruiz (2021)

Domestic Violence Initiative (DVI) increased the likelihood of reporting repeat incidents but significantly reduced the average harm experienced during these incidents

Individuals – Sherman et al. (1992)

Arrest for domestic violence had deterrent effect for married, employed, white high school graduates, but was criminogenic for unemployed, unmarried, black high school drop outs

Individuals – Sherman et. al (1991)

Arrest for domestic violence had no effect on recidivism at six months, and short arrest increased recidivism after 12 months

Individuals – Wan et al. (2018)

The Safer Pathway program decreased domestic violence-related outcomes in some treatment locations but produced no effect or backfire effects in other locations

Jurisdiction – Fell et al. (2005)

Increased DUI enforcement lead to declines in drinking-and-driving fatal crashes in two states but not two others

Jurisdiction – Lilley (2015)

Weed and Seed produced statistically significant reductions in robbery, burglary, and vehicle theft. Results for murder, aggravated assault, larceny, and rape were less consistent or generally not statistically significant.

Jurisdiction – McGarrell et al. (2012)

Comprehensive Anti-Gang Initiative includes strategic problem-solving model that increased partnerships among federal, state, and local law enforcement and prosecution agencies as well as community institutions

Micro Places – Armitage & Monchuk (2011)

Secured by Design (SBD) program to encourage builders to design out crime shows effectiveness in street-level comparisons but not when comparing SBD developments to non-SBD developments

Micro Places – Blattman et al. (2021)

Combination of hot spots policing and municipal services led to significant crime reductions that were offset by larger displacement effects

Micro Places – Carson & Wellman (2018)

POP intervention to combat crime in a multifamily, low-income apartment complex produced inconsistent effects on reported crime and calls for service across crime types

Micro Places – Chainey (2022)

The distribution of forensic property marking kits significantly reduced burglaries during a six-month follow-up period.

Micro Places – Chainey et al. (2023)

Hotspot policing led to significant reduction in robberies and thefts, but no significant effects were found for assaults or vehicle crime

Micro Places – Cohen et al. (2003)

Police raids on nuisance bars suppressed drug activity around those bars during the raids, with effects vanishing afterwards.

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